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Showing 13 results for Type of Study: Applicable

Mohsen Ebrahimi, Hakime Akbari,
Volume 5, Issue 9 (3-2013)

Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of swimming on appetite, energy intake (EI) and composition of foods in young females. Material and Methods: Seven normal weight (20
, , , ,
Volume 5, Issue 9 (3-2013)

Introduction: The aim of the present study was to investigate the responses of plasma visfatin to resistance exercise volume and its relationship with insulin resistance index, IL-6 and growth hormone. Methods: Fifteen healthy young subjects (age: 23.9±1, weight: 74.4±7.2, BMI: 26.1±3.6) were volunteered to participate in the study. After familiarization and determining the maximum strength (1-RM), subjects performed two resistance exercise protocols of 3-sets and 5 sets randomly at two separate occasions with one week intervening. Three blood samples were taken before exercise, immediately after exercise and after 30 min recovery, and were analyzed for growth hormone, interlukin-6 (IL-6) and visfatin. Insulin resistance index was calculated using glucose and insulin concentrations. To compare the responses of parameters to exercise and recovery, the differences between pre and post exercise as well as pre and post recovery data were calculated and compared by using paired t-test. Results: Results showed that there were no significant differences between the responses of these parameters to two resistance exercise volumes (P>0.05). Irrespective of resistance exercise volume, single session of resistance exercise resulted in significant (P<0.001) changes in all variables except for visfatin. Investigating the statistical correlations of data in response to exercise showed no significant relationship among all variables with visfatin. Conclusions: The results of this study show that resistance exercise volume is not an affective factor on plasma concentration of visfatin and that visfatin cannot be considered as one of the affective factors in insulin resistance process. Key words: Resistance exercise volume, maximum strength, visfatin, interlukin-6
Mahtab Moazami, Fahime Sadat Jamali,
Volume 5, Issue 10 (10-2013)

Abstract Background: Empirical evidence reveals positive effects of physical activity on skeletal mass. Hormones and biochemical markers of bone measurements indicate that the intracellular metabolism can explain the relationship between physical activity and bone metabolism. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of six months of aerobic exercise training on bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone in obese women idle. Material and Methods: This is an quasi-experimental study. Sample consisted of 15 middle-aged female employees who were targeted sampling method. samples randomly into two experimental groups (ten patients) and control group (five patients) were classified by body mass index greater than 30 kg per square meter, and accordingly the women were overweight. Aerobic exercise protocol consisted of six months (75 sessions), each session lasting 60 minutes with an intensity of 65-55% heart rate reserve ((HRR was. To measure PTH-specific ELISA kit was used . well as calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase were measured by Atvanalayz. statistical operations were performed using SPSS 16 software and a significance level of P<0.05 was considered. Results: Results showed that aerobic training no significant difference on BMI and percent body fat in the control group . but in the experimental group were significantly decreased. Also, none of the parameters studied serum (alkaline phosphatase, Pratvrmvn, phosphorus, and calcium) showed no significant change. Conclusion: 6-month aerobic exercise training with the intensity of 55-65 percent of heart rate reserve does not significant change in the parathyroid hormone, phosphorus, calcium and bone-alkaline phosphatase in Inactive obese women.
Mr Reza Ghahremani, Dr Farzad Nazem,
Volume 6, Issue 11 (3-2014)

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the acute effects of unilateral and bilateral squats performing (post-activation potentiation) on vertical jump performance and EMG activity of the selected muscles in athlete men during a vertical jumping.

Material and Methods: The subjects were 20 trained athlete men (10 volleyball players, 10 basketball players) with the characteristics of age: 20/94± 2/56 years, weight: 74/64± 6/72 kg, height: 180± 6/55 cm) that voluntary participate in this study. the subjects performed each of the three protocols: 1. Common warm up (the running on the treadmill with the speed of 9 km/h in 5 minutes and stretch movements on 3 minutes), 2. warm up and 1 set with two repetitions of dynamic bilateral half-squat with 90% 1RM, 3. warm up and 1 set with two repetitions of dynamic unilateral half-squat with 90% 1RM in three different days and randomized condition. in 5 minutes of recovery from each protocol, subjects were examined with the vertical jump test, and EMG activity of quadriceps and hamstring muscles were recorded in concentric phases of the jumping and during maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). the RMS/MVC index was derived from muscle's EMG signals. One-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to data analysis.

Results: The vertical jumping height have significantly improved after the second and third protocols (post-activation potentiation) compared to common traditional warm up (P= 0/043, 0/018 respectively), but no significant differences was found among the quadriceps and hamstring muscles electrical activity in three different conditions (P≥0/05).

Conclusion: The specific warm up method via using unilateral or bilateral half-squat probably can improve the athlete's subsequent vertical jumping performance. these changes are related to intramuscular variations.

Laleh Bagheri, Mohammad Faramarzi, Ebrahim Banitalebi, Akbar Azamian Iazi,
Volume 6, Issue 12 (3-2015)

Introduiction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the anabolic hormonal adaptation after different order of concurrent training in older women. Materials and methods: 40 healthy elderly women (age: 60.34±0.82, height: 155±0.01 cm, weight:71.72±1.89 kg And BMI: 29.45±0.63) were randomly placed into four groups, strength + endurance (S+E) (n=10), endurance + strength (E+S) (n=9) interval training (IT) (n=12) and control (n=9) groups. Training program done eight week, 3 times per week. Endurance training done on a cycle ergometer (intensity: 61-88 % MHR) and strength training involved several upper and lower body workout(intensity:40-75 1RM, 8-18 repeat). IGF-1, GH, insulin, norepinephrine and testosterone were assessed 24 hours before and 48 hours after training period. Results: The results showed that IGF-1 increased significantly in E+S and S+E groups (P≤0.05). In all groups GH, insulin and norepinephrine concentrations did not significantly changed (P≥0.05). Testosterone serum concentrations significantly decrease after S+E training group (P≤0.05). Results of one-way ANOVA showed that testosterone was significantly different between E+S and IT training programs. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, order of combined training could influence anabolic hormonal adaptation induce by exercise training and the degree of percentage of these changes was more in E+S group rather than other groups.
Magsoud Nabilpour, Ramin Amir Sasan,
Volume 7, Issue 13 (4-2015)

Aim: Determining the volume of exercise is key point of designing resistance training workout. The objective of this study was to compare the manipulation effects of resistance exercise volume on muscular strength of the upper and lower-body parts and effect of first movement in exercise prescription in the untrained men.

Material and Methods: 18 untrained men from 20 to 24 age-ranges voluntarily participated in this research. The subjects were homogenized after strength measuring (IRM) in two movements (chest press and leg press) using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test in two, fixed two-set groups (n=9) and sets with varied Sequence and volume (n=9).also the weight and environments of Thigh was measured. The subjects performed a common exercise program for four weeks and after four weeks, strength test (IRM) was conducted again. Two-set group continued the same program with new records for six other weeks, but changeable sets group applied changeable sets in each movement on the muscles in each exercise session. Dependent t-test and independent t-test were used to analyze data respectively fro comparing intragroup and intergroup changes at p<0.05 level.

Results: The strength of a maximum repetition increased significantly after four weeks and after six weeks in all upper and lower-body movements in both groups (p&le0.05). Percentage of increase in maximum strength on upper and lower-body in changeable sets group was higher than two-set group’s. also the weight in the end of fourth week and surrounding of Thigh in the end of 10th week significantly increased (p&le0.05).

Conclusion: It seems, after initial compatibility, upper and lower-body parts produce a similar response to specified exercise volume also after primary adaptation, exercises with high volume (3 sets) in comparison with low volume (2 set) had more adaptation

prescription should not be fixed.

Nima Gharahdaghi, Mohammad Reza Kordi, Abbas Ali Gaeini,
Volume 7, Issue 14 (10-2015)

Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of four weeks of high intensity aerobic interval training on blood and functional factors in soccer players. Methods: 18 soccer players in Azadegan league competitions were experienced and randomly divided into two groups (training;12 players , control;6 players). Mean ± SD age, height, weight and percent body fat were 21.88±2.24 years, 174.22±5.33 cm, 67.77±5.7 kg and 12.38±3.29, respectively. Four weeks of high intensity aerobic interval training was performed three times a week at the end of the soccer training sessions. The values obtained before and after the training period were compared using un-paired Student’s t–test, repeated measures ANOVA and LSD post hoc procedure. Results: Findings showed that 4-week training period did not cause significant changes on maximum and minimum anaerobic power and fatigue index. The only significant increase was related to mean anaerobic power. Conclusion: In addition, this training period did not have any significant effect on lactate to pyruvate ratio. We can conclude that four weeks of high intensity aerobic interval training probably did have significant effect on anaerobic power and have little effect on aerobic metabolism in soccer players.

Mojtaba Azizi Zarch, Dr Nahid Talebi, Dr Ali Samadi,
Volume 9, Issue 17 (3-2017)


Introduction: The N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has been proposed as a marker for evaluating and monitoring cardiac abnormalities characterized by myocardial wall stress. Strenuous exercise may generate transitory ischemia, myocardial stress, and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction, resulting in increased production of NT-proBNP suggestive of incipient heart disease. The purpose of this research was to examine  the response of NT-proBNP to a soccer game in adolescent male soccer players.

Methods: In this quasi-exprimental research, 22 adolescent male soccer players (mean age 15.39±0.44 years, BMI 19.89±1.89 kg/m2) were selected in a purposive manner. Protocol was include a soccer game. NT-proBNP was assayed from blood samples collected at rest, immediately post- and at 2 hour and 24 hour post-exercise.

Results: The result showed that significantly increased the levels of serum NT-proBNP in immediately  and 2 hour post soccer game in adolescent male soccer players, but not in level of serum NT-proBNP in 24 hour post exercise.

Conclusions: finding of this study shows that NT-proBNP levels increase significantly in adolescent male soccer players after a soccer game, but this increase – although statistically significant - is clinically within the normal physiological range; moreover, the increase is temporary in nature and returns to normal resting level 24 hours after the game. Finally, it seems that in this age groupwith this level of fitness, soccer game doens not result in a dangerous rise in NT-proBNP levels and is cardiacly safe.

- Hamid Agha Ali Nejad, - Elham Shahabpoor,
Volume 10, Issue 18 (10-2017)

Introduction: The dynamics of oxygen after exercise is considered as an important indicator of fitness and cardiovascular health. The objective of this study was to compare the dynamics of oxygen consumption in the recovery period after two maximum exercise continuous and interval in female basketball players.

Methods: In this study,7 women basketball players were selected  and in three separate sessions with an interval of 48 hours participated in this test. The first session consist of incremental exercise protocol to determine maximal oxygen uptake and the second session consist of continuous maximum exercise protocol Balk and Weir (1959) to the point of exhaustion and the third session consist of interval maximum exercise protocol with phases 1-minute of running on a treadmill with an intensity of 120% Vvo2 max and 2-minute rest, up to the point of exhaustion was carried out.In order to assess the variables, changes in respiratory gases during the entire duration of activity and 10-minute recovery period was recorded.

Results: Data analysis using paired t test at p<0/05 was performed. The findings of this study showed that after two continuous and interval maximum exercise in  Half- time recovery of vo2 (p=0/330) and Half- time recovery of oxygen pulse (p=0/821) and Total oxygen consumption during recovery (p=0/760) was not significant.

Conclusions: According to analysis of the data showed that the trend of oxygen consumption during recovery after these two types of exercise is the same.

Dr Mahmoud Hesar Koshki, Dr Azam Mollanovruzi,
Volume 10, Issue 18 (10-2017)

Introduction: Appetite affected energy homeostasis, it play an important role in control and regulation of energy balance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate intensity exercise training on appetite, acylated ghrelin and leptin levels in obese and untrained women.
Methods: The research method was semi-experimental. The sample group was made of 25 subjects randomly assigned into two groups: high moderate exercise (15 subjects) and control (10 subjects). The blood sample test was taken in two stages of rest and before breakfast and an appetite questionnaire was completed. Running exercise program including three sessions a week for six weeks with 64-76% of maximum heart rate. 2-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to analysis the data.
Results: The results showed that fat percentage (P=0.53) and body weight (P=0.48) after exercise did not change significantly, but maximum oxygen consumption was significantly increased after exercise (P=0.03). Moderate intensity exercise did not have a significant effect on leptin (P=0.93) and plasma acylated ghrelin (P=0.86). Besides, there was not a significant difference in appetite (P=0.76) and daily calorie intake (P=0.58) between two groups.
Conclusion: The lack of significant negative energy balance in the research protocol, resulting in no significant weight loss, did not create compensatory responses of appetite. It seems that the duration of exercise should be increased to change the appetite and related hormones, in order to create a negative balance.
Mrs Seyedeh Fatemeh Hosseininejad, Dr Rouhollah Ranjbar, Dr Saeed Shakeryan,
Volume 10, Issue 18 (10-2017)

Introduction: Research has shown that the time of day to absorb caffeine is an intervention variable which should be considered when evaluating caffeine ergogenic. The purpose of this study is to comprise sprint and endurance swimming records on female swimmers in the morning and evening following consumption of caffeine.
Material and Methods: Fourteen female swimmers (age 24.6 ± 4 years, BMI 23.10 ± 0.73 kg/m2) participated as volunteers in the Study. The study design was crossover and subjects were examined 8 times in 5-day intervals placed in either caffeine (6 mg/kg) or placebo (6 mg/kg). Swimming records for 50m and 400m free style were measured one hour after consumption of caffeine or placebo during morning and afternoon (8 am and 6pm).
Results: Results indicated that there was a significant difference between the results of swimming performance of 50 m (speeding) at morning and afternoon and 400 m (endurance swimming) in the morning and evening hours (P<0.05). Caffeine supplement consumption has significant influence on the 50m and 400m free style during the mornings (P<0.05) whereas it was negligible during evenings (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Therefore it can be concluded that consumption of 6 mg/kg of caffeine during the morning can result in a significant increase in the sprint and endurance swimming records that suggesting consumption time of caffeine influence on performance independent of caffeine dose.

Marefat Siahkouhian, Leila Fasihi, Aidin Valizadeh, Abbas Naghizadeh, Lotfali Bolboli,
Volume 19, Issue 19 (3-2018)

Introduction: Quantifying the relationship between volume and intensity as key components of training is a precise manner that is complicated for most coaches. The aim of this study was to quantify the inverse relationships between training volume and intensity during exhaustive treadmill running among active young men.
Methods: 32 active young men aged 21 years selected as subjects and completed four exhaustive treadmill running in the four separate phases at 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% VO2 with at least 72 hours rest intervals. The inverse relationship between regression.
Results: The results showed that the inverse relationship between volume and intensity of exhaustive treadmill running obeys a second-order polynomial regression where the volume of exercise (VE min) is a function of exercise intensity (EI beat/min) (VE min= 0.0225(HR beat/min) 2 – 9.4672 (HR beat/min) +997.91).
Conclusion: It can be concluded that the inverse relationship between volume and intensity of exhaustive treadmill running is non-linear and the fitted equation can be used to predict the volume of exercise based on the exercise intensity among active young men.

Marzieh Ashkanifar, Seyedmahmoud Hejazi, Rambod Khajeie, Amir Rashidlamir,
Volume 20, Issue 20 (9-2018)

Introduction and purpose: Exercise training increases skeletal muscle capillary density, but the molecular mechanisms of this process are not yet clear. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of eight weeks of training in the water on serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and atherogenic factors in overweight and obese men.
Materials and Methods: 22 men with BMI = 30±3
voluntarily participated in this study which were randomly divided into two groups of control and training in water (n=11). The training program consisted of three sessions per week for eight weeks with intensity between 60 to 80 percent of maximal heart rate. Body mass index, body fat percentage and weight of the subjects were measured before and after the intervention. Venous blood samples which had been obtained in the pre-test and post-test were used to measure serum levels of VEGF and atherogenic factors.

Results: The results showed that serum levels of VEGF increased from 1517.63 to 1648.27, which this increment in the training group was significant compared to the control group (p <0.001). Although, LDL/HDL, TC/HDL, and TG/HDL ratio were significantly decreased in the training group compared to the control group (p<0.001). Discussion and Conclusion: Training program in water might improve metabolic conditions by an increment of the serum levels of VEGF and decrement of atherogenic factors.

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