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Showing 37 results for Subject: Special

Taghi Pournamdarian, Abolghasem Radfar, Hiva Hasanpour,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2016)
Abstract

Time is one of the significant elements of narration. One of the pioneer researchers focusing on time is Gerard Genette. He classified times into three components: order, continuation and frequency, each of which is divided into smaller components. The present study investigates the concept of time in Nizami’s Story of Layla and Majnun. Owing to the fact that Nizami is one of the greatest storytellers in Persian literature and his verse anthologies have witnessed many imitators, a need was felt to introduce his employment of the concept of time to show the greatness of his poetry. The findings of this study illustrates that Nizami has frequently tried to use the elements of time shift and continuation (to lengthen the time span of his stories). Time shift (flashbacks to the past and the future) are narrative (internal) in nature which serves to lengthen the time of the stories. The narration in the anthology alternates between dialogue and dramatic expression and the abbreviations and frequency in the dramatic expression shows the high control of the narrator in how to narrate the story. 


Moloud Talaie, Eshagh Toghyani,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2016)
Abstract

Seti Nameh forms part of Old Persian poetry which was heavily influenced by Indian literature. Burning and Melting by Nau’i Khabushani is one of the verse anthologies that focuses on this issue. A close look at the structure of this work of art shows that the author has used special techniques in narrative the story which, stated otherwise, would lose much of its appeal. In the narrative analysis of Burning and Melting, the present study draws on the theory proposed by Zheplint Volt, the French critic. The critical analysis of the work showed that, looking at the plot of the story from this perspective, the only shortcoming is the absence of an organize force in the story which, of course, does not damage the overall structure of the story. Looking at the text from a narrative genres perspective, it was found that Burning and Melting is a disordered and text-based work which uses an omniscient point of view. Hence, it adopts an all-knowing stance that gives the reader the chance to see all the internal and external actions of the characters. Given the peculiar narrative structure of the text, the lyrical aspect of the work reaches its height  in the event of the burning of the bride and groom.


Ahmad Amiri Khorasani, Amin Amiri, Hamid Reza Doagoei,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2016)
Abstract

The present study investigates the reasons that gave birth to the text of Dorreh Nadereh. We believe that this book is the product of a historical trend in the mind and language of Iranians. This study delineates the aforementioned trend from the perspectives of various human sciences such as the philosophy of language, Plotunian philosophy, Foucaultian sociology, Sussurian linguistics and different literary criticism theories. It adopts a multidisciplinary approach to the analysis of peculiar language in Persian literature. Peculiar language is a complicated and symbolic language which produced a variety of problems in the development of thinking when it was used in non-literary Persian writings. The researchers believe that the historical trend in the mind of language of Iranians assisted with a special type of wisdom known and approved by Iranian people gives birth to this unusual language. This type of wisdom was extensively analyzed through the theoretical writings of Foucault. Another factor that led to the emergence of this peculiar language was the theory of Unity of Being which produced a special type of writing which is called steam of lexis in this study. Unity of Being, in the sense in which it is used here, has many manifestations including connecting to the single Truth through appealing to undeniable musical beauty as well as wonderful power of language. The reason that we called this language steam of lexis is that it is compared to the western concept of stream of consciousness to find the similarities and differences between the two concepts. In the end, the exemplar evidence offered from the text of Dorreh Nadereh illustrates that the main technique used by Mirza Mehdi Khan in writing Dorreh Nadereh is not the well-known circumlocution, but is the use of an interesting combination of disturbing brevity amidst wearisome circumlocution. 


Razieh Hojjatizadeh,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2016)
Abstract

Pragmatics is one of the theories which have played a role in the revival and reconfiguration of the science of Rhetoric in the 1950s and 1960s. The main objective of pragmatics is the study of the relationship between language forms and their users. Pragmatics studies linguistic phenomena from the perspective of linguistic units and aims at findings the meaning intended by language users. A close look at the nature of the two fields of studies of pragmatics and rhetoric reveals their similarities. The focus on the applied nature of language or the linguistic realizations of language structure is on such similarity. The difference between the two results from their specific orientations to the issue of language. Rhetoric was originally developed in a religious concept and its prime and original goal was to portray the miraculous language of Quran while pragmatics is part of the new science of linguistics which gives priority to the descriptive rather than prescriptive analysis of language. The present study extensively reviews the similarities and differences between these two sciences and strives to how the blending of these two approaches to language can open new ways to the study of literary linguistics. 


Fereshteh Rostami, Masoud Keshavarz,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2016)
Abstract

Interdisciplinary studies in human sciences forms a new perspective and has produced valuable results in its short life since it has developed the frontiers of human sciences. The present study has tried to analyze the characters in the novels of Simin Daneshvar through the application of Conformity Theory of Eliott Aronson, a contemporary social psychologist. A second look at the characters in her novels reveals that they have appealed to telling lies to conform to others. This study, using a descriptive-analytic approach, searched for the instances of the three components of conformity (compliance, identification and internalization) in the novels. The effects of three influential factors in the conformity of the story characters, that is, the sender, the message and the receiver, are identified. The main text under study is Souvashoon. However, sometimes the two other novels, The Island of Wandering and The Wanderer Cameleer have been used for further analysis. Owing to the fact that the majority of the characters in the novels are women and the stories have been narrated from their viewpoint, the reasons for telling lies by female characters in the novels of Simin Daneshvar are discussed.  This research project was conducted through the use of library research and note taking.  


Naser Nikoobakht, Ebrahim Khodayar, Mohsen Ahmadi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2016)
Abstract

Literary criticism in its modern sense originates from the culture of the western world. However, it does not mean that Persian literary history has been without literary criticism. With respect to literary criticism and critical analysis of poetry, the Safavid era is one of the greatest periods in the history of Persian literary criticism. The most significant aspect of literary criticism practices of the era is striving to search for meaning and attempts at arriving at new themes but the issues of the reciprocal relationships between the poets and conformity to facts are two dominant themes of the literary criticism of the period. Coffee houses, as the most important and the greatest literary circle in Iran at the time, play a significant role in the literary arena. The researchers have tried to discuss the proposition put forward by scholars, “Literary criticism of this era is taste-oriented.” The present study strives to shed light on the literary criticism practices of this era which have not been investigated in detail. The analysis of the anthologies of Sfavid era and the content analysis of narrated stories of Coffee house literary criticism of this period in these anthologies reveals that literary criticism in coffee houses, following the tradition of literary orientations of the period, is meaning-oriented and the approach to criticism is based on literary tastes. Literary criticism as practiced in coffee house affects the poetry of the time in two ways: One is that, owing to the presence of the common people and their eagerness of listening to poetic recitations in coffee houses, many laymen have been led to poetry and as a result of accompaniment with the poets have tried to compose poems. The second strand of influence comes from the fact that mutual relationship between the poets and the audience in coffee houses partly determined the literary taste of the period and led to the type of poetry that had the audience in mind.    


Khadijeh Tondoki, Ebrahim Estaji,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2016)
Abstract

The componential analysis of a story is one of the most modern approaches to literary studies which have drawn the attention of many literary scholars. The emergence of formalistic approach to literary criticism that resulted in the introduction of structuralism influenced the studies of literary researchers. Structuralists believe that each story could be broken down into its narrative structures. The most important researcher of formalism was Vladimir Propp. Propp analyzed one hundred fairy tales and divided each fairy tale into its smallest structural units and then tried to relate them to the whole story. Given the fact that has fairy tales are of a narrative and folklore nature, Propp could discern a final narrative structure for them. One of the best approaches to the analysis of the stories of Shahnameh is morphological approach. This study attempts to show the relationship between structuralism, narratology and morphology and then embark on the morphological analysis of the story of Zahak in Shahnameh according to Propp’s theory. The analysis of the story of Zahak which is a single story resulted in the identification of thirty one primary and secondary structural units which are of conflict-victory diagrammatic type. The four moves derived from these diagrammatic types conform to the first and second moves in Propp’s theory which shows the conformity of this story to Propp’s theory. 


Najmeh Hosseini Sarvari, Ali Jahanshahi Afshar,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2016)
Abstract

The present study discusses the narrative components including noun, adjective and verb (person, characteristics and action) of stories of One Thousand One Nights based on the narrative theory of Todorov. The characters in the stories of One Thousand One Nights are classified according to the traditional Persian grammar into mass nouns, proper nouns and unknown nouns. In each case, the actions and properties of the characters in the story are explained and the method of meaning making in the text is explained in the form of a basic narrative grammar. In this taxonomy, mass nouns refer to those characters that are typical and despite the different roles that they have in the story are always introduced by a specific trait. Proper nouns refer to famous historical or story characters who are introduced by their proper names and readers know them by their traits and characteristics and their names are associated by a specific trait in the mind of the readers. Unknown nouns refer to those characters that are unknown to the readers and are typical characters embodying a moral or psychological trait. These characters are named in the stories according to their prominent traits which identify them such as the foolish teacher, the pious woman and the generous youth.  


Dr Mohammad Alavi Moghaddam, Hossein Keikhosravi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2016)
Abstract

Koosh Nameh is an epic book which was written by Iranshah ibn Aby al-Khayr one hundred years after the Shahnameh. Although the writer has imitated the style of Shahnameh to some extent, there are major differences between the two books in terms of stories due to the fact that it relies on a different source in prose for telling stories. This book of poetry tells the story of an antihero called elephantine Koosh-e-Peelgoosh, Zahhak’s nephew, who was selected as the governor of China so that he could destroy all homeless members of the House of Jamshid there. In fact, this work of art narrates the story of the kingdom of Zahhak beyond the borders of Iran up to the time of the birth of Abtin and Fereydun. One of the stories that are narrated in this book is the story of Zahhak which is highly different form the story narrated in Shahnameh. The present study tries to compare the story of Zahhak as told in this book with the one narrated in Shahnemeh and elucidates the major differences between them.


Dr Seyyedeh Maryam Rozatian, Fatemeh Talebi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2016)
Abstract

Intertextuality studies are considered as one of the most recent approaches to literary criticism. In this approach to literary criticism, it is believed that no text is independent of prior texts and texts are written with reference to earlier texts. Intertextuality, as a field of study, was first introduced on the basis of the ideas of Julia Kristeva and was extended and developed by Gérard Genette into a unified and systematic discipline after three generations of theorists. Genet called his body of works transtextuality and divided them into five categories: intertextuality, transtextuality, paratextuality, metatextuality and architextuality. Architextuality focuses on the relationship of a work of art with its literary genre. In Persian literature, each literary text belongs to a specific literary genre. Tazkirat al-Awliyā by Farid al-Din Attar is one of those literary texts which, despite the fact that it belongs to general biographies, has some very specific features that distinguishes it from other types of biographies. This study is an attempt to investigate the relationship between Tazkirat al-Awliyā and its literary genre drawing on the notions of architextuality. This study illustrates that Tazkirat al-Awliyā is a didactic poets’ biography and a mystical epic that has a special place in literary texts.  


Ali Ziaoddini Dashtkhahi, Dr Ghavam Abolghasem ,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2016)
Abstract

Some of the traditional and archetypal features present in a text serve to form a link between the text and other texts and establish a relationship between the mind and society and help us to extend the conceptual world of the text by extending its literary images. Though it is true that myths, symbols and archetypes, together with other discourse elements, establish a relationship between the text and the reader, they are independent textual features that uncover the history of human life on earth. The systematic nature of myths and archetypal symbols sometimes remind us of the devils and infernal world and at other times remind us of gods and results in man’s thinking of heaven and the heavenly world. Owing to the fact that in the course of history archetypes have been mixed with man’s experiences, there have always been relationships between archetypes and man’s life on earth.By focusing on the issue of meaning in archetypal criticism, an attempt is made in the present study to enter the domain of the relationship between this kind of literary criticism and eschatology and by studying three groups of imagers in archetypal systems discover the relationship between eschatology and this kind of literary criticis.


Dr Ali Eshghi Sardehi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2016)
Abstract

In numerous Bahram Beyzaie's dramatic works, women play a major role. Some of his works are about women and in other works women play an important role alongside men. Many of these women in Beyzaie's works are active, explorer, justice seeker and fighter. Many of them want to be aware of their rights, role and importance in public life, and to maintain their rights, choose the way of fighting with those who have limited their freedom. They may occasionally use some tricks in their fight, but their efforts are mainly constructive in nature rather than destructive. In this paper, based on the theories of Simone de Beauvoir, French philosopher, in her two-volume book, The Second Sex, the position and status of women in the works of Beyzaie are investigated. In this book, Simone de Beauvoir has explored the gender and sexuality or health and psychological status of women and their role in society and the family. Some of Beyzaie's and de Beauvoir's comments are similar and in some cases there can be seen differences between the views of these two writers. Topics such as the differences between men and women, the position of the women in patriarchal society, the masculine behavior of women, sacrifice, the mythical role and influence of women over men or community and women's role in the family are discussed in the present study as reflected in Beyzaie's works and they are compared with the views expressed by Simone de Beauvoir.


Dr Farzad Baloo, Dr Batool Mahdavi, Hajar Agh,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2016)
Abstract

In intertextuality studies, no text is assumed to be self-sufficient and any text serves its intertextual function for the preceding and succeeding texts. This study examines the intertextual relations in Valadnameh by Sultan Valad, Resaleye Sipahsalar by Fereydun-ibn-Ahmad, and Manaqib al-'Arifin by Shams-al-Din Aflaki drawing on theoretical concepts of Gérard Genette. It was found that Resaleye Sipahsalar and Manaqib al-'Arifin are under the influence of Valadnameh in terms of structure and content of the stories in explicit, non-explicit and implicit ways. It was also found that though Manaqib al-'Arifin, compared to Resaleye Sipahsalar, is more extensive in content and includes more unreal and fictional content, it has a higher status in terms of its story telling and literary value.


Dr Moslem Zolfagharkahni,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2016)
Abstract

Ecocriticism, which studies the relationship between literature and ecology, is one of the less-known but worthy of research fields of study among interdisciplinary studies. Ecocriticism could be considered as a return to the view that fosters the interrelationship between the reader, the text, and the external world and is a reaction to Postmodernism and Post-structuralism. Ecocriticism has its links to the social and intellectual movement of Feminism which strives to improve the status of women in society. One of the feminist movements which focuses on the causes of the destruction of nature and earthly environment and also guards against the exploitation of women in society is Eco-feminism, which connects Ecocriticsm to Feminism, and has the central notion that the exploitation of women in society originates from male-dominated world and the decline of the status of women and nature. The most significant question for which Feminism attempts to find an answer is to what extent men are legible to speak on behalf of women in literary texts. Hence, Feminism led to Feminist Literary Criticism. In Modern Persian Literature, the most serious and influential Feminist Criticism could be seen in Forough Farrokhzad’s poetry. She is the first Persian female poet who frankly disclosed her feminist desires and hopes in a feminine, pure, and humble language while illustrating the world of women in contemporary Iran. The goal of this study is to explore Ecofeminist traces in Forough Farrokhzad’s poetry. Therefore, the following themes and issues which may help to connect her thoughts and language to nature are presented: “The Nature Ontology”, “The Seasons and Time Passage”, “The Four Major Elements in Nature”, “The Tree and The Plant”, and “The Earth and The Sky Creatures”. The present study strives to see the extent to Nature is reflected in the thoughts and poetry of Forough Farrokhzad and to show her main concerns with respect to Nature and Ecology. 


Dr Issa Najafi, Sirros Gazlani, Masoud Bavanpouri,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2016)
Abstract

One of the existing misconceptions regarding literary theory is that one can only find literary theory and criticism in contemporary texts. However, this is not true since criticism is a scientific approach and any text, whether it is classic or contemporary, could be analyzed through a modernist perspective. Short story is one of the literary genres that have undergone extensive changes in recent years. Minimalism is a new version of narration in which stories shrink in size day after day. Using an analytical-statistical design and examining samples in terms of size, time and place restrictions, few characters and so on, the present study tries to show the minimalist properties of stories in all the stories of Gulistan of Saadi. It was found that many of the stories narrated in Gulistan reflect features of minimalistic stories. The majority of stories of Gulistan are lacking in plot and in case they have a plot, the plot is not complex and the story is narrated with the least complication. Another minimalistic feature of the stories in Gulistan is time and place restrictions; a close look at Guilstan shows that many stories are lacking in precise time and place and, if time is addressed, it is treated vaguely in the form of a day, a night, a year or a village, a city or the like. 


Dr Behzad Ghaderi Sohi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2016)
Abstract

It seems that in the second half of the twentieth century, post-imperialist discourse was divided into two distinct but interrelated branches. The first branch deals with the reactions of the oppressed/‘other’ people to the dominant culture, literature, and attitudes of the colonizers that, in fact, dates back to previous centuries, although it changed course and thrust after the 1970s with the publication of Edward Said’s Orientalism (1978). The second branch involves the reactions of the artists and writers of the dominant countries, e.g., Caryl Churchill and Howard Brenton in England, who began to criticize the imperialistic nature of their own countries after 1968 ‘events’ in Europe and America, a watershed for various, new works of art. In modern English drama, one could find exemplary dramas of British writers that, deploying a post-imperialist approaches, guard against the cultural arrogance and literary hegemony of Great Britain. To dismantle the dominant modes of culture and to give birth to a new consciousness, these new dramas shun away from Aristotelian drama whose principles of Mimesis and Catharsis were misused by the mainstream theatres of the dominant countries to establish their own self-image as racially and cultural superior people. These modern dramas reflect the attitudes of strata of the British society who have come to believe that for centuries Great Britain has tried to have cultural hegemony over nations through the legitimation of slavery and oppressing political activists in the native countries. These dramas challenge the hegemony of Great Britain and attempt to reconstruct the domestic culture of their people(s). Hence, the heroes in these post-imperialist dramas often adopt a new identity in their post-imperialist cultures and/or communities. The present article tries to illustrate how Shelaugh Stephenson negotiates such issues with her compatriots in her plays Mappa Mundi and Enlightenment.


, ,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2016)
Abstract


Dr Omid Vahdanifar, Fatemeh Farokhi,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2016)
Abstract

Modern poetry "story of Sangestan" perspicacious poetry Mehdi Akhavan, one of the best narrative poem collection "of the Avesta", which in addition to having the characteristics of literary language due to its validity, in view of narratology is also important. The theme of this poem, story displacement is Sangestan city's artistic and sometimes as a symbolic language expressed two pigeons. The objective poetry Akhavan described in this society of his age is deadlocked. In fact, Akhavan in the poetry of despair over that society has narrated. This article narrative style and narrative poetry modality of Sangestan According to "plane composed of fused narrative" Simpson is studied. There is evidence that in this poem, it was determined that due to changes in the views of different sections of the poem, sometimes a third-person narrator, sometimes reflective and sometimes a third person, the first person that has somehow been effective in advancing the narrative have. Therefore, the combination of these three types of narration narrator. Also, in this poetic story of Sangestan intermodal systems based on the Simpson-faceted system that include: system-sided affair, desire, knowledge and understanding to be explored. Simpson believes the four-dimensional system, regardless of what the narrator tells poem about what it says, you can view: positive, negative or neutral is. Search result modal systems in the poetry of Sangestan story is that because more of planar systems, "an" and "commitment" are used, it seems that the dominant modality in the lyrics of "positive view" is.


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Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2016)
Abstract


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Volume 1, Issue 3 (9-2016)
Abstract



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فصلنامه مطالعات نظریه و انواع ادبی Journal of Studies on Literary Theory and Genres
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