Volume 8, Issue 32 (Volume 8; Number 32; Summer 2018)                   2018, 8(32): 1-15 | Back to browse issues page

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Lashgari Tafreshi E. Identifying and Measuring the Structural Relationship of Strategic Leadership Explanatory Factors in Urban Management: Case study: Isfahan metropolis. Arid Regions Geographic Studies. 2018; 8 (32) :1-15
URL: http://journals.hsu.ac.ir/jarhs/article-1-1421-en.html
Yazd University , lashgari@yazd.ac.ir
Abstract:   (5995 Views)
Introduction
In the geographical sciences, the concept of space and its related topics, including the concept of spatial planning and preparation, are considered as fundamental concepts that are interpreted differently in different epistemological schools. In this regard, the possibility of emerging one of the most fundamental conceptions of geographical space based on the philosophy of existentialism, especially in line with the works of the French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, is worth exploring. Despite profound differences in existentialism, philosophers agree that philosophical thinking begins with the human subject and that life is meaningless unless one makes sense of it. In Sartre's existentialism human beings are doomed to liberty and must bear the burden of responsibility that this will have important implications for understanding geographical forms and processes. Existentialists believe that structural theories about geographical space neglect the human uniqueness. In addition, the school emphasizes the ability and freedom of each individual to make decisions and rejects any generalization of human beings and societies. On this basis, it is attempted to explore and define the concept of geographical space in both the recognition of space and space building aspects of the school of existentialism as one of the contemporary schools with emphasis on the ideas of "John Paul Sartre".
Materials and Methods
This research, with a theoretical approach, explores the concept of geographic space in the context of Sartre's existentialist school of thought in order to provide a framework for mind function in recognition of space and space building. In order to achieve a genuine theory in this research, it has been attempted to explain the concept of geographical space with the mental ontological approach of space in the first place. Then, in line with the teachings and ideas of John Paul Sartre in explaining the school of existentialism, a new approach to defining geographical space is presented.
Discussion and Results
In general, the most important cognitive functions of geographic space in the context of existentialism are the John Paul Sartre and can be mentioned in two areas: Recognition of space and space building:
A- Existentialist's space Recognition
This school recognizes space within the frame of mind and believes in the placement of the human mind. According to Sartre's perspective, geography space has a kind of internal dialectic structure and all spatial dialectics is based on individual practice. So understanding space is done with all kinds of individual’s transcendent emotions like pleasure, anger, love, hatred. Existentialist spatialism refers to a range of cognitions that insist that human experience, consciousness and intuition must be incorporated into any cognition of different dimensions of space. Therefore, understanding a subject based on the individual's world is location and time-based. In this regard, the geographical space of the extrinsic being is, though it always has a position in the world, but the authenticity of the human mind also has the possibilities to choose between them. In this school, contrary to the positivist view, space does not mean out-of-mind phenomena that are purely experiential, but spatial phenomena such as points, lines, scales, realms, networks, hierarchies, and so on. It is intertwined with meanings that are recognized by human understanding, identity and subjectivity.
B- Existentialist's Space building
As mentioned above, Sartre's existentialist school is not fully confident about the nature of being and considers human existence as a competition and confrontation based on will of human beings for the purpose of living longer. In other words, in the Sartre's existentialist school, a society that accepts the principle of human will, does not submit to the will of nature. Therefore, not moving towards spatial planning and planning in the existential school is considered to mean human objectification like other beings. In this school for achieving the spatial building; there is need for greater attention to the free interaction of individuals with each other without structural and institutional constraints and existentialist freedom depends on the freedom of others.
Conclusions
Existentialist space building requires greater emphasis on freely interacting with one another regardless of the structural and institutional constraints underlying the concept of governance in order to achieve better living conditions in space. Thus, although Sartre's existentialism does not have any general rules for space building, the inclusion of the principle of liberty as one of the main criteria of this notion inevitably leads to existentialist space building in terms of the freedom of others in the context of the rule.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: جغرافیای سیاسی
Received: 16/Jan/18 | Accepted: 02/Jul/18 | Published: 09/Oct/19

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